Rꢁꢂiꢃtꢄ Pꢄcꢄ Nꢅ. 14 / Juꢆiꢅ 2023  
DOI: hꢂps://doi.org/10.25054/2027257X.3798  
Critical thinking with TPACK in  
bachelor's degree in Literature  
and Spanish Language  
Miller Andrés Galindo Ducuara*  
Irlesa Indira Sánchez Medina**  
Received: July 6, 2022  
Accepted: February 20, 2023  
Arꢀcle type: Scienꢀfic and technological research  
Master in Educaꢀon  
Aꢀꢁꢂꢃꢄꢅꢂ: The arꢀcle presents the results of the research  
variables involved in an online training program  
that develops criꢀcal thinking and the Technological  
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) model. Acꢀon  
research is carried out, within the framework of the  
ICT research line and the learning process, with a  
sample of 42 students from the first semester of the  
Bachelor's program in Literature and Spanish Language  
at the Universidad Surcolombiana, who parꢀcipated  
in the pre-test. -test and post-test. In conclusion, the  
online training program strengthens the development  
of criꢀcal thinking with the applicaꢀon of the TPACK  
from the Surcolombiana  
University. Professor at the  
Surcolombiana University.  
* Master in Educaꢀon and  
ICT from the Cooperaꢀve  
University of Colombia.  
Professor at the Cooperaꢀve  
University of Colombia,  
Hꢇꢋ ꢂꢇ ꢅꢌꢂꢍ ꢂꢎꢌꢁ ꢄꢃꢊꢅꢏꢍ:  
Galindo, M., & Sánchez, I.  
2023). Pensamiento críꢀco  
con TPACK en Licenciatura  
en Literatura Lengua  
Keywords: criꢀcal thinking, TPACK model, Learning  
manager, ICT, online training program.  
Castellana. Revista PACA 14,  
pp. 65-85.  
According to the Ministry of Naꢀonal Educaꢀon  
2021), criꢀcal thinking is considered an  
intellectually acꢀve and skillful process of  
conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing  
and/or evaluaꢀng informaꢀon evidenced by  
observaꢀon, experience, reꢁecꢀon, reasoning or  
communicaꢀon leading to acꢀon.  
Creaꢀve Commons  
ISSN 2027-257X  
Bermúdez (2021) states that the construcꢀon of knowledge and  
the intellectual producꢀon of the student is built through autonomous,  
parꢀcipatory and collaboraꢀve learning. Due to the above, it is necessary  
to implement innovaꢀve and creaꢀve pedagogical models that allow the  
involvement of technological means as an elementary tool in the teaching  
and learning process, thus achieving a significant transformaꢀon in the  
Figure 1 complements the previous concept, revealing thinking skills  
Creamer, 2011). According to the psychologist Nickerson (1986), criꢀcal  
thinking is defined as "the property or domain of a mental, psychic or  
pracꢀcal nature that individuals opt for and carry out procedures of some  
acꢀvity whose purpose is to achieve some objecꢀve, guided by knowledge  
and/or previous knowledge” (p. 410). Criꢀcal comprehension assumes  
the discourse so that the reader makes pragmaꢀc, strategic or projecꢀve  
In the same way, UNESCO (2021) states that, within Sustainable  
Development, learning must prepare students of all ages to find  
soluꢀons to the different problemaꢀc challenges of today and tomorrow,  
understanding that educaꢀon is transformaꢀve and allows as individuals  
they are able to make their own decisions and, at the same ꢀme, propose  
innovaꢀve ideas that benefit society; the above refers to Criꢀcal Thinking.  
Figure 1. Criꢀcal Thinking Skills.  
Sꢇꢉꢃꢅꢍ: Aguilar Vargas, Alcántara Llanas & Braun Mondragón, 2020.  
Criꢀcal thinking and the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge  
TPACK) have achieved a representaꢀve change and impact on teachers,  
strengthening the teaching and learning process of students (Leal Urueña  
Rojas Mesa, 2020).  
ISSN 2027-257X  
Rꢁꢂiꢃtꢄ Pꢄcꢄ Nꢅ. 14 / Juꢆiꢅ 2023  
Tꢎꢍꢇꢃꢍꢊꢅꢄꢏ ꢃꢍfꢍꢃꢍꢆꢅꢍꢁ  
This research study impacts the different degree programs offered  
by the Surcolombiana University to people interested in carrying out  
professional training, especially the academic program of Literature and  
Spanish Language. Returning to the fact that there are few invesꢀgaꢀons  
carried out at the local, naꢀonal and internaꢀonal level in this field,  
which allow the strengthening of criꢀcal thinking supported by matrices  
or methodologies in accordance with new trends and what is required  
by globalizaꢀon. To conꢀnue with the criꢀcal development, the TPACK  
model proposed by Mishra and Koehler (2016) is besought, a model  
integrated by the knowledge that the teacher requires to manage ICT  
efficiently in teaching. Figure 2 presents the Content (CK), Pedagogy  
PK) and Technology (TK); Similarly, the TPACK approach benefits three  
knowledge bases in isolaꢀon, emphasizing the types of knowledge found  
at intersecꢀons: Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Technological  
Content Knowledge (TCK), Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK)  
that employ Technology, Pedagogy and Content, and Technological  
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) (Mkoehler, 2012).  
The previous evidences the TPACK model as an adequate educaꢀonal  
response to relate knowing what, knowing how and knowing where, with  
a tendency to adopt, adapt, create and share resources in the classroom  
to complete the teaching process and learning (Jiménez Sabino & Cabero  
Almenara, 2021).  
Figure 2. TPACK Model.  
Sꢇꢉꢃꢅꢍ: Technological, Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) (Mkoehler, 2012).  
Table 1 lists some of the main research results carried out in other  
contexts with the TPACK model in educaꢀon.  
Creaꢀve Commons  
ISSN 2027-257X