Subproductos generados en el tratamiento y valorización de residuos sólidos urbanos dentro del concepto de biorrefinería: una revisión sistemática

Palabras clave: Biocombustibles, Productos químicos, biofertilizantes, economía sostenible, economía sustentable, Economía Circular

Resumen

Esta revisión tiene como objetivo recopilar y resumir las investigaciones llevadas a cabo actualmente asociadas a la obtención de subproductos generados a partir de los residuos sólidos urbanos (RSU) empleando diversos procesos dentro del concepto de las biorrefinerías. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica utilizando la base de datos DIALNET, SCIENCEDIRECT, GOOGLE SCHOLAR y ACADEMIC de los cuales se incluyeron artículos en inglés y español publicados entre julio del 2008 de junio del 2020. Se expulsaron los artículos de años anteriores, artículos que no informan subproductos, informes de los temas y capítulos de libros. Esta revisión mostro que a partir de los RSU se puede generar varios productos que tienen un gran valor tanto para la fabricación de productos como en el comercio, por lo tanto, se recomiendan más investigaciones al respecto. Dentro de los productos generados se mencionan el biogás, biometano, bioetanol, biohidrógeno, ácidos grasos volátiles, ácido láctico, Biofertilizantes y enmiendas agrícolas. Además, la mayoría de los estudios analizados sobre la producción de los subproductos se han realizado en modo discontinuo obteniendo un solo producto, por lo que no se enmarca dentro del concepto de biorrefinería. La idea es proporcionar nuevos conocimientos alternos para implementar el desarrollo y la implementación de una biorrefinería a gran escala usando como materia prima los residuos sólidos urbanos que están compuestos principalmente por proteínas, ácidos acético, lignina entre otros, que por medio de la unión de varios procesos bioquímicos es posible obtener biocombustibles, productos químicos y nutrientes tales como biogás, bioetanol, biohidrógeno, ácido láctico, ácidos grasos volátiles, biofertilizantes, logrando impactos positivos ambientales, ecológicos, sociales, económicos y técnicos.

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Biografía del autor/a

Jairo Smith Triviño Pineda, Investigador

Soy profesional en Ingeniería Agrícola, estudiante de la Maestría en Ciencias Biológicas con una profundización en gestión, formulación y ejecución de proyectos de investigación en áreas como ingeniería de riegos y drenajes, adecuación de tierras, maquinaria agrícola y mecanización, ingeniería de pos-cosecha de productos agrícolas y agroindustria, construcciones rurales y energías renovables; con capacidad de liderazgo y facilidad para trabajar en equipo, con alto sentido de responsabilidad y honestidad. Destaco como habilidades una buena toma de decisiones con capacidad creativa para la innovación aplicando técnicas y herramientas de ingeniería.   

Claudia Yolanda Reyes , Universidade Federal Da Bahia

Pós Graduação em Geologia. Docente Universidad de la Amazonía

Javier Eduardo Sánchez Ramírez , Dpto I+D DAM

Investigador. Doctorado Ingeniería Química - Universidad de Valencia

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Publicado
2021-05-19
Cómo citar
Triviño Pineda, J. S., Reyes , C. Y., & Sánchez Ramírez , J. E. (2021). Subproductos generados en el tratamiento y valorización de residuos sólidos urbanos dentro del concepto de biorrefinería: una revisión sistemática. Ingeniería Y Región, 25, 60-74. https://doi.org/10.25054/22161325.2783
Sección
Artículo de revisión